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Pearson Edexcel International GCSE in History (4HI1)
Students must study at least two depth studies from [Block 1], one historical investigation from [Block A] and one breadth study in change from [Block B]
Block 1
1 The French Revolution, C1780-99
1 The origins of the Revolution, C1780-87 The long-term causes: the influence of the Enlightenment, the impact in France of involvement in the American War of Independence, the Three Estates - their duties and privileges, the role of Louis XVI, the unpopularity of Marie Antoinette, the reasons for and extent of financial problems, policies of Necker, the problem of poor harvests.

2 Short-term causes of the Revolution: from Assembly of Notables to Estates General, 1787-89
The short-term causes: the Assembly of Notables (1787), the policies of Calonne and Brienne and their consequences, the key events of 1789 and their causes and consequences, including the meeting of the Estates General, the Tennis Court Oath, the storming of the Bastille, the Grande Peur, the setting up of the National Assembly.

3 Developments 1789-92
Changes brought about by the Constituent Assembly (1789-91), the flight to Varennes and its impact, the roles of the Sans Culottes, Girondins and Jacobins, the Legislative Assembly (1791-92), the declaration of war on Austria and Prussia and its impact, the reasons for the coup of August 1792 and the setting up of the National Convention.

4 Convention and Terror, 1792-94
The National Convention, the Edict of Fraternity, the trial and execution of Louis XVI, the work of the Committee of Public Safety, the elimination of the Girondins, the role of Robespierre, the reason for and impact of the Terror.

5 Directory and First Consul - the fall of Robespierre to the rise of Napoleon, 1794-99
Reasons for Robespierre's downfall and execution. The Thermidorian Reaction, the White Terror; the setting up of the Directory, its limitations and achievements, the royalist challenge and the coup of 18 Fructidor, the reasons for the fall of the Directory; Napoleon Bonaparte named "First Consul”, achievements of the Revolution in France (1789-99).
2 Development of a nation: unification of Italy, 1848-70
1 The 1848 Revolutions in the Italian states
The causes of the 1848 Revolutions in the Italian states, including new constitutions in Tuscany and Piedmont, Mazzini's failed democratic revolt against the Pope in Rome. Reasons for failure of the 1848 Revolutions. The legacy of the 1848 Revolutions: Victor Emmanuel and the Statuto, the impact of Austrian dominance, the impact on the papacy, the French occupation of Rome.

2 Developments in Piedmont, 1849-54
Political developments in Piedmont; the rule of Victor Emmanuel II; the appointment of Cavour (1852) and its impact. Cavour's financial and domestic reforms, economic expansion and his policies to reduce the influence of the Church.

3 The defeat of Austria, 1854-59
Piedmont's relationship with Austria. The significance of the Crimean War. Causes of the Second Italian War of Independence, including nationalism in Piedmont, relations with Napoleon III, the significance of the Orsini Affair and the Pact of Plombieres. Origins, events and results of the Austrian war, including the significance of the battles of Magenta and Solferino, the Treaty of Villafranca, Cavour's resignation, annexation of the Central States and the loss of Nice and Savoy.

4 Garibaldi and the Papal States
Garibaldi's motives for intervention in Naples and Sicily and his relationship with Cavour and Victor Emmanuel II. Proclamation of Kingdom of Italy. Garibaldi's successes in Sicily and Naples and the Papal States and the reaction of the great powers and Cavour. The establishment of the Kingdom of Italy.

5 Venice and Rome and the extent of unification by 1870
Obstacles to unity after 1861: the role of Austria, France and the Pope, including 'Piedmontisation', Piedmont and Austro-Prussian War, the second battle of Custozza and Union with Venetia; the problem of Rome: the papacy and French occupation. The failure of Garibaldi's diplomacy (1862-67), Piedmont and the Franco-Prussian War and the acquisition of Rome. Unity in 1870: factors promoting and working against unity.
3 Germany: development of dictatorship, 1918-45
1 The establishment of the Weimar Republic and its early problems
The Abdication of the Kaiser and the Germán Revolution of 1918-19. The strengths and weaknesses of the new Republic and its Constitution. Reactions to the Treaty of Versailles. Challenges from Right and Left, including the Kapp Putsch and the Spartacist uprising. French occupation of the Ruhr. Causes and effects of hyperinflation.

2 The recovery of Germany, 1924-29
The work of Stresemann. Rentenmark, Dawes and Young Plans, US loans and the recovery of the German economy. Successes abroad - League of Nations, Locarno Treaties and Kellogg-Briand Pact.

3 The rise of Hitler and the Nazis to January 1933 Hitler and the German Workers' Party. Changes to the party (1920-22). Causes, events and results of Munich Putsch, (1923). Reorganisation of the Party (1924-28). Impact of the Great Depression. Nazi methods to win support. The role of the SA. Events of 1932 to January 1933, including the role of von Papen, von Schleicher and von Hindenburg.

4 Nazi Germany 1933-39
Setting up the Nazi dictatorship through the Reichstag Fire, Enabling Act, Night of the Long Knives and Hitler as Führer. The methods of Nazi control and the extent to which they were successful, including the police state, censorship and propaganda. Nazi policies towards education, women, the young, the Churches and their impact. Nazi racial policies and increasing persecution of Jews. Policies to reduce unemployment and their impact. The Labour Service, the Labour Front and Strength Through Joy.

5 Germany and the occupied territories during the Second World War
Nazi policies towards the Jews, including ghettos, death squads and the Final Solution. The Home Front, including changing role of women, ‘total war', rationing and the effects of allied bombing. The growth of opposition to Hitler, including the Edelweiss Pirates, the White Rose Group and the July Bomb Plot (1944). Hitler's death and the end of the Third Reich.
4 Colonial rule and the nationalist challenge in India, 1919-47
1 The Rowlatt Acts, Amritsar and the Government of India Act, 1919
Impact of First World War on India, including the growth of nationalism. The key terms of and reactions to the Rowlatt Acts and the nature of and weaknesses of the Government of India Act/Dyarchy (1919). Causes, events and significance of the Amritsar Massacre.

2 Gandhi and Congress, 1919-27
The causes, nature and consequences of the rise of nationalism in India, Gandhi and his aims and methods Congress and Swaraj, civil disobedience. The Satyagraha Campaign. Attitude of Congress to the British, Muslims and untouchables. The role of Jinnah.

3 Key developments, 1927-39
Consultation and conflict in the late 1920s and 1930s, the causes and consequences of the Simon Commission, Salt March and Round Table Conferences. The significance of the Government of India Act (1935) and the outcome of the elections of 1937. The roles of Gandhi and Jinnah and the Muslim League.

4 The impact of the Second World War on India
Relations between Gandhi, Nehru and Jinnah, and their policies. Attitudes towards, and the political and economic impact of, the Second World War. The significance of the Lahore Resolution (1940) and the 'Quit India’ campaign. The Cripps Mission and its failure. The role of Wavell. The importance of Chandra Bose.

5 Communal violence, independence and partition, 1945-47
The events and impact of the Simla Conference. The attitude of the British Labour Government to India. The Cabinet Mission and its impact. The causes, nature and impact of Direct Action. The significance of Muslim/Hindu differences and clashes. The demand for Pakistan. The role of Mountbatten. British acceptance of partition as a solution, and its immediate consequences, the problem of the Princely States, further communal violence.
5 Dictatorship and conflict in the USSR, 1924-53
1 The leadership struggle, 1924-29
The rivals for the leadership, including Stalin, Trotsky, Kamenev, Bukharin and Zinoviev. Strengths and weaknesses of Stalin and Trotsky. Stalin's steps to power (1924-29), his emergence as leader of the USSR and the reasons for his success.

2 Five-year Plans and collectivisation
Stalin's economic aims. Reasons for industrialisation, including the failings of the NEP. The nature of industrialisation, including Gosplan, the first three Five-year Plans, Stakhanovites. Success and failures of industrialisation. Reasons for and nature of collectivisation (1928). Kolkhoz and Motor Tractor Stations. Opposition of and removal of kulaks. Success and failures of collectivisation, including the Great Famine (1932-33).

3 Purges, show trials, the cult of Stalin and the revision of history
Reasons for purges, including the murder of Kirov. Key features of the purges of the 1930s. Control of the populace, including the roles of Yezhov, the NKVD and the gulags. The conditions in the gulags. Reasons for and features of the Moscow Show Trials (1936-38). Purges of the armed forces. Impact of the purges on the Soviet Union. Reasons for and methods of the cult of personality. Censorship, propaganda, ‘socialist realism', control of education and the Soviet interpretation of history.

4 Life in the Soviet Union, 1924-41
Effects of Stalin's policies on living and working conditions in town and countryside. The differing experiences of social groups. Changes in family life and employment and in the political position of women. Changes in education. Reasons for, and features of, the persecution of ethnic minorities.

5 The Second World War and after, 1941-53
The reasons for and extent of Soviet setbacks (1941-42), and the reasons for the survival of the USSR and success in driving back the German invasion, including war production. The significance of Stalingrad. Post-war recovery and the Fourth Five-year Plan. Stalin's popularity. Post-war purges. The strength of the USSR on the death of Stalin in 1953 and the impact of his period in power.
6 A world divided: superpower relations, 1943-72
1 Reasons for the Cold War
Long-term rivalry between the Soviet Union and the West and the ideological differences between Communism and Capitalism. Tensions and disagreements during the Second World War. Key features of the conferences at Tehran, Yalta and Potsdam. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. The attitudes of Truman and Stalin.

2 Early developments in the Cold War, 1945-49
Soviet expansion in Eastern Europe. Churchill and the 'iron curtain'. The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan. Cominform and Comecon. Disagreements over Germany including Bizonia. Causes, events and results of the Berlin Crisis (1948-49), including the setting up of NATO and the creation of two Germanys: the Federal Republic (FRG) and the Democratic Republic (GDR).

3 The Cold War in the 1950s
The impact of the Korean War and the formation of the Warsaw Pact. Khrushchev and peaceful co-existence. The impact of Soviet rule on Hungary, Rakosi, de-Stalinisation, Nagy and his demands. Reasons for the Soviet invasion of Hungary, its effects and the international reaction. The nuclear arms race and its impact on superpower relations.

4 Three crises: Berlin, Cuba and Czechoslovakia
The U2 incident (1960) and its effects on the Paris Summit Conference. Reasons for the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961, including the refugee problem. The effects of the Berlin Wall on relations between East and West Germany and between the Superpowers. The Bay of Pigs invasion, the causes and key events of the Cuban Missile Crisis and the reasons for its outcome. The Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia - its causes, events and impact, including the Brezhnev Doctrine.

5 The Thaw and moves towards Détente, 1963-72
The thaw: 'Hotline', Test Ban Treaty, Outer Space Treaty and Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty. Reasons for Détente. SALT talks and treaty. The extent of Détente in 1972.
7 A divided union: civil rights in the USA, 1945-74
1 The Red Scare and McCarthyism
Reasons for the Red Scare, including the Cold War (1945-50), Hiss and Rosenberg cases, the FBI, the HUAC and the Hollywood Ten. Methods used by McCarthy and the growth of opposition. Reasons for his downfall. Overall impact of McCarthyism on the USA.

2 Civil rights in the 1950s
Segregation and discrimination. The influence of the Supreme Court and Congress. The importance of Brown v Board of Education of Topeka (1954), death of Emmett Till (1955) and the key events and significance of the Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-56) and Little Rock (1957). The significance of the Civil Rights Act, 1957. Revival of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK).

3 The impact of civil rights protests, 1960-74
Freedom riders, Anniston fire bombing, sit-ins and voting rights and the Meredith Case. The methods and activities of Martin Luther King. The Birmingham Campaign, the Washington March and the 'Dream' speech. The Mississippi Freedom Summer. The impact of protest on civil rights legislation of the 1960s. Selma and voting rights. The Nation of Islam and the work of Malcolm X. Reasons for the growth of Black Power and its impact, including the 1968 Olympics; the influence of Stokely Carmichael. The impact of race riots especially in the Watts District. The Black Panther movement and the roles of Bobby Seale and Huey Newton.

4 Other protest movements: students, women, anti-Vietnam
Reasons for the growth of protest movements. The student movement and links to war in Vietnam, including the anti-Vietnam War movement. The Berkeley Free Speech movement. Students for a Democratic Society and 'hippies'. Betty Friedan, Eleanor Roosevelt, NOW, women's liberation movement and abortion. Phyllis Schafly and opposition to the women's movement.

5 Nixon and Watergate
Reasons for and key features of the Watergate Scandal. Impact on Nixon, US politics and new laws, including the War Powers Act (1973), the Election Campaign Act (1974), the Privacy Act (1974) and the Congressional Budget Control Act (1974); Gerald Ford and the presidential pardon.
8 South Africa: from union to the end of apartheid, 1948-94
1 Setting up apartheid, 1948-54
Nature and extent of segregation in 1948. Election of 1948 and reasons for Nationalist victory. Origins and nature of apartheid and its development to 1954, including Population Registration Act (1950), prohibitions on mixed marriages, Group Areas Act (1950), Pass System and creation of Reserves, Separate Amenities Act (1953), Bantu Education Act (1953). Opposition and resistance to the Nationalist Government and the suppression of it (1948-1954).

2 The growth of apartheid, 1955-59
Petty apartheid and the impact of segregation and changes to education. Development of apartheid under Verwoerd and Vorster, including causes and consequences of the Bantu Self-Government Act (1959).

3 Resisting apartheid, 1955-78
Nature, development and effectiveness of resistance to apartheid, including Nelson Mandela, ANC, Biko and Black Consciousness. Other forms of civil disobedience, including anti-pass law demonstrations, Sharpeville (1960), Spear of the Nation (1961) and Soweto (1976) and their consequences. Enforcement of apartheid, including the Treason Trials (1956-61). Extent of threats to apartheid by 1978, including the international reaction.

4 PW Botha - response to resistance, 1978-90
Nature and development of opposition in this period, the United Democratic Front, ANC, Nelson Mandela, Township Unrest, Church leaders, and Botha's response. Reasons for the reforms of PW Botha and their consequences for the National Party and White, Black and Coloured South Africans. Afrikaaner resistance to reforms, especially the work of the AWB. Reasons for and consequences of the State of Emergency (1985­ 1990). International opposition to apartheid and the impact of boycotts and sanctions.

5 Dismantling Apartheid, 1990-94
Reasons for the reforms of FW de Klerk and their consequences for the repeal of apartheid (1991). Importance of de Klerk, Nelson Mandela and other individuals in bringing about end of apartheid. Mandela, ANC and the multiracial Election of 1994.
Block A
A1 The origins and course of the First World War, 1905-18
1 The alliance system and international rivalry, 1905-14
The system of alliances and ententes before 1914, including the Triple Alliance and the formation of the Triple Entente. Economic, imperial and military causes of international rivalry.

2 The growth of tension in Europe, 1905-14
The key issues in the Balkans and their significance for international relations, including Balkan nationalism and Austro-Serbian rivalry. The features and impact of the Bosnian Crisis (1908-09) and the Balkan Wars (1912-13). The features and significance of Anglo-German rivalry, including the naval race and the Moroccan Crises of 1905-06 and 1911. The assassination at Sarajevo and its consequences. The events leading to the outbreak of war, including the part played by international agreements and the roles of the great powers.

3 The Schlieffen Plan and deadlock on the Western Front
The Schlieffen Plan and reasons for its failure. The trench system, life in the trenches, new weapons and methods. Reasons for deadlock. Key features of Somme and Passchendaele. Successes and failures on the Western Front, including the responsibility of Haig.

4 The war at sea and Gallipoli
German threat to Britain in North Sea. German raids, Heligoland Bight, Dogger Bank and Jutland. The U-boat threat, the Lusitania and anti-U-boat measures. Reasons for, and key features of, the Gallipoli campaign. Evacuation and effects of campaign.

5 The defeat of Germany
The significance of the US entry into the war. Key features of the Ludendorff spring offensive (1918). The Allied drive to victory (July-November 1918) and reasons for German defeat.

A2 Russia and the Soviet Union, 1905-24
1 Tsarist rule in Russia, 1905-14
Tsarist rule in Russia in 1905 and the reasons for discontent. The Potemkin Mutiny and the setting up of Soviets. The 1905 Revolution, including the October Manifesto and reasons why Nicholas survived. The attitude of Nicholas to the first four dumas. The growth of opposition groups. Stolypin's policy of repression and land reform. The Lena Goldfield strike.

2 Opposition to Tsarist rule 1914-17: the impact of war and the February Revolution
Economic, social and political effects of the First World War on Russia. Influence of Rasputin. Immediate causes of the February Revolution, especially events in Petrograd. The army mutiny. Abdication of Tsar. Setting up of Provisional Government.

3 Provisional Government and the Bolshevik Revolution
Weaknesses and mistakes of the Provisional Government. The impact of the Petrograd Soviet. The activities of Lenin and the Bolsheviks, including the April Theses and July Days. Nature and impact of the Kornilov Revolt. Key events of the Bolshevik takeover. Reasons for success of Bolsheviks, especially the roles of Lenin and Trotsky.

4 The Bolshevik consolidation of power and the Civil War
Bolshevik consolidation of power, including the significance of the 1917 Decrees, the closure of the Constituent Assembly and the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. The two sides in the Civil War. Key events and reasons for Bolshevik victory.

5 War Communism and the New Economic Policy (NEP)
Reasons for, nature and effects of War Communism. The Kronstadt Naval Mutiny. Reasons for, nature and effects of the New Economic Policy. Opposition to NEP. Achievements of Lenin to 1924.
A3 The USA, 1918-41
1 The Roaring Twenties
The economic benefits of the First World War. Reasons for economic boom in the 1920s, Henry Ford and mass production, hire purchase, advertising, consumerism and the popularity of the stock market. Problems in farming, including over-production and mechanisation. The decline of older industries. The leisure industry, cinema, jazz, dancing, sport, radio, advertising and motoring. The changing position of women, including the flappers.

2 Increased social tensions in the 1920s
Attitudes and policies towards immigration. The Palmer Raids and the ‘Red Scare'. The Sacco and Vanzetti Case. Attitudes towards black Americans. The Ku Klux Klan. Morals and values and the ‘Monkey Trial'. Prohibition and the gangsters.

3 The USA in Depression, 1929-33
The causes and consequences of the Wall Street Crash (1929-30). Hoover's reaction to the Great Depression: intervention and volunteerism. The impact of the Depression on banking, agriculture, industry and on people's lives: Hoovervilles and the Bonus Marchers, unemployment and homelessness.

4 Roosevelt and the New Deal, 1933-41
Roosevelt's aims. The Hundred Days, the Alphabet Agencies, including the TVA and policies to deal with agriculture industry and unemployment. The second New Deal, including the Works Progress Administration, welfare for the poor, the old and farmers. The impact of the Social Security Act, the National Labor Relations Act ("Wagner Act") and the Banking Act of 1935. Rural electrification. The achievements and shortcomings of the New Deal.

5 The Opposition to the New Deal
The opposition of the Supreme Court, Republicans, business interests, the Liberty League; radical criticism such as Huey Long's Share Our Wealth programme and Father Coughlin's Social Justice campaign.
A4 The Vietnam Conflict, 1945-75
1 The struggle against France for independence, 1945-54
The origins of the First Indochina War, especially the aims of the Vietminh. The tactics of General Giap; the search for a diplomatic solution; the French defeat at Dien Bien Phu and its immediate consequences.

2 US policy and intervention, 1954-64
The aims of the Geneva Conference (1954) and the US response, Eisenhower and the Domino Theory, the formation of South Vietnam. Life in North and South Vietnam under Ho Chi Minh and Ngo Dinh Diem. The impact of Ho's policies to unite Vietnam, the NLF, and the Ho Chi Minh Trail. The response of US, the Strategic Hamlet Programme, the fall of Diem (1963), the Gulf of Tonkin incident (1964).

3 Confrontation in the Vietnam War, escalation 1964-68
The nature of the Second Indochina War, the roles of Johnson, McNamara, Westmoreland and the jungle war (1965-68), Search and Destroy; the bombing campaign, Operation Rolling Thunder. A televised war; the siege of Khe Sanh to the Tet Offensive and the Battle of Hue (1968).

4 Nixon and Ford's policies - Vietnamisation, peace and Communist victory, 1969-75
Failure of peace talks; widening the war in Cambodia and Laos, ‘secret bombing'. Relations with China and the roles of Kissinger and Le Duc Tho in the Paris peace talks (1972). Nixon's policy of Vietnamisation and withdrawal by 1973 and the renewed North Vietnamese offensive, the effects of Ford's diplomatic response, the final offensive (March-April 1975) and the fall of Saigon.

5 The impact of conflict on civilians in Vietnam and attitudes in the USA
The effects of the war on civilians in Vietnam. US response to guerrilla warfare, Hearts and Minds, My Lai, Phoenix Programme, defoliation, bombing. The effects of the war in the US, university protests; media coverage, opposition to war in USA; pro-war demonstrations. The Fulbright Hearings (1971).
A5 East Germany, 1958-90
1 The Berlin Wall crisis, 1958-63
The origins of the Wall - the refugee problem and its impact on the GDR. The influence of Ulbricht and Khrushchev. The impact of the Wall on East Berliners, security and escapes.

2 Stabilisation and control: the GDR, 1962-87
Causes and nature of economic stabilisation, including ending emigration; the New Economic System and Economic System of Socialism (1962-71); the role of Comecon. Economic problems in the 1980s, including welfare overspends and poor quality goods. The nature of state control, including the role of the Stasi, the extent of control of the young, religion and the church. Propaganda and censorship. Extent of support for and opposition to the GDR. Relations with the Eastern bloc, including the Soviet Union.

3 Life in the GDR - social change, 1962-87
Daily life, including the provision of employment, housing, education and welfare. The changing role of women. Honecker and the development of a GDR identity; mass media; the importance of sport.

4 Ostpolitik - relations with the Federal Republic, 1969-87
Relations with West Germany: Ostpolitik and its impact, the agreements of 1970-72; the relaxation of travel restrictions and increased communication with the FRG, impact on the GDR's economy and standard of living. International recognition of the GDR; state visits.

5 The Peaceful Revolution, 1987-90
The influence of Gorbachev, including on the protest movements. Key events of 1989, border openings with Hungary and Austria, Gorbachev's visit in October, the decline of Honecker, Krenz and the opening of the Berlin Wall. The immediate causes of the end of the GDR (1989-90), the collapse of the SED government and the elections of March 1990, the reunification of East and West Germany (March-October 1990).
Block B
B1 America: from new nation to divided union, 1783-1877
This unit comprises five key topics, each centred on crucial developments in the history of this period. The following themes run through the key topics:
• the relationship of the separate states to the whole
• the issue of slavery
• the problems posed by an expanding nation
• the role of government policy
• the significance of financial and economic factors.
These themes will be the focus of Paper 2, sub-question (c), which will relate to a period of not less than 25 years, normally drawing on the content of at least two topics.

What students need to learn:

1 Building a new nation, 1783-1809
The nature and impact of tensions between large and small states and the clash over slavery. The significance of Shays' Rebellion. The Connecticut Compromise and the Constitutional Convention (1787). The work of, and divisions between, the Founding Fathers, including Federalists versus Anti-federalists, the Bill of Rights. Strict Constructionists versus Loose Constructionists. Jefferson's presidency, including his ‘1800 Revolution' and States' Rights.

2 Westward expansion and Native American removal, 1803-49
Opposition to Westward expansion from Spain, Britain, Mexico and Native Americans. The significance of the Louisiana Purchase, the Transcontinental Treaty and the annexation of Texas. Expansion and sectional conflict - the Missouri Compromise. The Indian Removal Act, the Trail of Tears. Settling the West - Manifest Destiny, migration to Texas and Oregon and the significance of the California Gold Rush.

3 Slavery, the South and the causes of secession, 1850-61
The political conflict over slavery and states' rights, including the Compromise of 1850, the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 and Bleeding Kansas and the Dred Scott case. The economic origins of the division between Union and Confederacy. The immediate causes of the Civil War, including the roles of John Brown, Abraham Lincoln, Fort Sumter and the secession of South Carolina.

4 Civil War and the end of slavery, 1861-65
The Civil War and the reasons for Union victory. The role of military leadership, including Lee, Sherman and Grant. The Union naval blockade. The impact of the political leadership of Lincoln and Davis; the Emancipation Proclamation and Gettysburg Address. The impact of the Battles of Gettysburg and Vicksburg (1863) and the ‘March Through Georgia' (1864). The consequences of the destruction of the Southern economy.
5 A More Perfect Union? 1865-77
The role of Johnson and the Reconstruction Act of 1867 restoring the seceded states to the Union. Black Reconstruction: the Freedman's Bureau and the Southern response, the Black Codes; the Civil Rights Acts of 1866 and 1875 and the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments. The failure of Grant's Peace Policy towards Native Americans, Custer's Last Stand and its aftermath.
B2 Changes in medicine, c1848-c1948
This unit comprises five key topics, each centred on crucial developments in the history of this period. The following themes run through the key topics:
• changes in medical treatment and in understanding the cause of illness
• improvements in public health provision
• changes in surgery
• the changing role of women in medicine
• the impact of war and science and technology on medicine.
These themes will be the focus of Paper 2, sub-question (c), which will normally draw on the content of two or more topics.

What students need to learn:

1 Progress in the mid- 19th century; Nightingale, Chadwick, Snow and Simpson
Barriers to progress, especially the lack of understanding of causes of disease. Florence Nightingale and changes in nursing and hospitals at Scutari. Dangers in surgery: pain, infection and bleeding; the impact of Simpson and chloroform. Problems and improvements in public health, including the work of Chadwick and the effects of the Public Health Act (1848), the cholera threat and the work of Snow.

2 Discovery and development, 1860-75; Lister and Pasteur
Pasteur, the development of the germ theory and its effects. Improvements in surgery: Lister and the impact of antiseptics. Government action on public health: the significance of Public Health Act (1875). Nightingale and continuing improvements in hospitals and nursing. Elizabeth Garrett and the progress of women in medicine.

3 Accelerating change, 1875-1905; Ehrlich, Koch and chemistry
The fight against germs, including the work of Koch and bacteriology; aseptic surgery; the impact of the Public Health Act (1875) for improving public health; science and medicine: blood transfusions, magic bullets and the work of Ehrlich, radioactivity and the impact of Marie Curie.

4 Government action and war, 1905-20
The impact on public health of the measures (1906-11) of the Liberal Governments. The importance of the First World War for the role of women in medicine and improvements in medical treatment, surgery, x-rays, blood transfusion and fighting infection.

5 Advances in medicine, surgery and public health 1920-48; the NHS
The development of penicillin and the roles of Fleming, Florey and Chain. The importance of the Second World War for developments in surgery, including skin grafts and blood transfusion, and for the role of women in medicine. Beveridge, the development of the NHS and its importance for public health.
B3 Japan in transformation, 1853-1945
This unit comprises five key topics, each centred on crucial developments in the history of this period. The following themes run through the key topics:
• external influences on Japan
• Japan awakens - military expansionism from seclusion to world power and defeat
• the modernisation of the economy - the problems of industrialisation
• social transformation in a modern world
• political change.
These themes will be the focus of Paper 2, sub-question (c), which will normally draw on the content of two or more topics.

What students need to learn:

1 Japan opening up to China and the West, 1853-67
The Perry Mission - experiencing the West, opening the ports - the political, economic and social effects. Causes of the fall of the Tokugawa - corruption and incompetence within the government; the 'other' Japanese - Choshu and Satsuma.

2 Transformation, 1867-1895
Impact on economy and society of the fall of the Tokugawa. Political modernisation as represented in the Meiji Constitution. The impact of the Cultural Revolution and the breakup of the Restoration Coalition (1873). Meiji culture - civilisation, Enlightenment and relations with Christianity.

3 An emerging power, 1895-1919
Impact of industrial and commercial revolution in the Meiji period. Emperor Taisho and power transfer from oligarchy to Taisho Democracy (1912). Changes in Taisho culture and society for Taisho Youth, women, village and urban cultures. Relations with China and the West, including the advance of Japanese influence and possessions in Korea and China following the Sino-Japanese War (1895), Boxer Rebellion (1900), Russo-Japanese War (1904-05), Anglo-Japanese Alliance (1902) and the Treaty of Versailles (1919).

4 Political and economic challenges, 1919-31
Political conflicts, including the struggle over universal suffrage, an emerging labour movement and the Public Security Preservation Law (1925). Economic decline in the 1920s: the impact of The Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923 and the effects on society, trade and industry of world Depression from 1929.

5 Depression, empire and collapse, 1931-45
Political and social effects of Tenko (rejecting communism). The causes and political effects of a return to military dictatorship in the 1930s. Strained relations with the West and especially the USA; the Great East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, including Manchukuo (1931) and relations with the League of Nations. The effects on people at home and in occupied countries of Konoe's New Order during the War in Southeast Asia (1937-45). The effects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, including the surrender of the Showa Emperor.
B4 China: conflict, crisis and change, 1900-89
This unit comprises five key topics, each centred on crucial developments in the history of this period. The following themes run through the key topics:
• civil conflict - order and disorder
• external influences on China
• economic transformation
• social transformation
• the role of leadership.
These themes will be the focus of Paper 2, sub-question (c), which will normally draw on the content of two or more topics.

What students need to learn:

1 The fall of the Qing, Warlordism and chaos, 1900-34
The impact of the Boxer Uprising and late Qing reforms. The causes, events and results of the 1911 Revolution. China under the Warlords. The May the Fourth Movement. Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek and the Guomindang. The emergence of the Chinese Communist Party, the United Front and the influence of the Soviet Union. The Northern Expedition and the Shanghai Massacres. The Extermination Campaigns.

2 The triumph of Mao and the CCP, 1934-49
The events and importance of the Long March 1934-35. War with Japan 1937-45 - the role of the CCP, especially the Red Army and the limitations of the Guomindang. Key features of the Civil War 1946-49. The Battle of Huai-Hai. Military, political, economic and social reasons for the success of Mao and the CCP in the Civil War.

3 Change under Mao, 1949-63
Changes in agriculture and industry, including the first Five-year Plan, attack on landlords, the Agrarian Reform Law, cooperatives and collectives. Changes in the role of women. Political changes, including the Thought Reform, the Three- and Five-anti Campaigns. The Hundred Flowers Campaign. The reasons for, key features and effects of the Great Leap Forward. The influence of the Soviet Union on developments in China.

4 The Cultural Revolution and its impact, 1965-76
Mao's motives for the Cultural Revolution. Key features of the Cultural Revolution. The Red Guards, education and the ‘cult of Mao'. Impact of the Cultural Revolution on China and Mao's position. The effects of the Sino-Soviet split on the Chinese economy.

5 China, 1976-89
The rise and fall of the 'Gang of Four’. Changes under Deng in education, birth control, agriculture and industry. Deng’s opposition to political reform. Emergence of privatisation and westernisation. Origins of Democracy Movement (1979). The 'Democracy Wall’ movement and Wei Jingsheng, support of university students from 1986, features and aims. Reaction of Deng. Tiananmen Square (1989).
B5 The changing role of international organisations: the league and the UN, 1919-c2011
This unit comprises five key topics, each centred on crucial developments in the history of this period. The following themes run through the key topics:
• the organisation and decision making of the League and the UN
• policing conflict - the role of peacekeeping in resolving international conflicts
• the work of the specialised agencies
• the strengths and weaknesses of the organisations
• Great Power involvement in the League (Britain and France) and the UN (US and USSR).
These themes will be the focus of Paper 2, sub-question (c), which will normally draw on the content of two or more topics.

What students need to learn:

1 The creation and successes of the League, 1919-29
Woodrow Wilson and the setting up of the League. The Covenant of the League of Nations. Membership; Assembly, Council, Secretariat, League agencies and commissions. Successes of the League, including the Aaland slands (1920), Upper Silesia (1921), the Greek-B lgarian War (1925), Refugee and Drugs Committees.

2 The League challenged, 1930-39
The roles of the Great Powers, including the problem of the veto and the failure to curb the dictators. Failures in Manchuria (1931-33), Abyssinia (1935-36). The continuing work of the specialised agencies, including the Child Welfare Committee and the slavery commissions.

3 Setting up the United Nations Organisation and its work to 1964
Setting up of the UN and the UN Charter, including structural problems. General Assembly and Security Council, Secretariat, secretary-general, UN peacekeeping forces, Human Rights Commission and UN agencies, the continuing work of the ILO, and the Refugee Organisations; the Mandates Commission and the Disarmament Commission, WHO, FAO, UNESCO and UNICEF. The UN role in Palestine (1947-49), the Korean War (1950-53), and the Congo (1960-64).

4 The UN challenged, 1967-89
Case studies in limited success, including the UN role in the Middle East, especially the continuing Palestine problem - Resolutions 242 (1967) and 338 (1973) - and the problem of Lebanon (1975-85). The attempt to resolve disputes in Namibia (1989). The problem of Security decisions - the 'Permanent 5’. The continuing work of the specialised agencies.

5 The UN at bay, 1990-2011
UN attempts to find long-term peace in identity wars, including Somalia (1991-95), Bosnia (1992-95). The Balkans (1991-99). Mozambique (1990-94) and Sudan (2005-11). The UN role in the Gulf Wars. Obstacles to success. The continuing work of the specialised agencies.
B6 The changing nature of warfare and International conflict, 1919-2011
This unit comprises five key topics, each centred on crucial developments in the history of this period. The following themes run through the key topics:
• land warfare
• sea warfare
• air warfare
• weaponry, technology and communications
• guerrilla warfare.
These themes will be the focus of Paper 2, sub-question (c), which will normally draw on the content of two or more topics.

What students need to learn:

1 The changing nature of warfare, 1919-39
Changes in the nature of warfare, including gas, tanks and heavy artillery. Emergence of submarines and military aircraft - fighter and bomber planes in conflicts in East Asia and Abyssinia. Use of guerrilla tactics in the Spanish Civil War.

2 Changing methods of warfare by land, air and sea, 1939-45
Blitzkrieg in Europe. The Battle of Britain, the Blitz, V weapons and the allied bombing of Germany. Developments in U-boat warfare in the Atlantic. Amphibious and paratrooper operations such as D-Day and Arnhem (1944-45). Civilian resistance movements, especially in France. The importance of aircraft carriers in the Pacific War (1941-45).

3 New forms of conflict - nuclear and guerrilla war versus conventional war, 1945-75
Reasons for dropping atom bombs in 1945. Key developments in the nuclear arms race (1945-75), the development and means of delivering other weapons of mass destruction, MAD theory and nuclear proliferation. Arms limitation and reduction talks. Continuing importance of conventional warfare, especially in Arab-Israeli conflicts. Superpowers and asymmetric guerrilla warfare, especially in Vietnam.

4 Conventional war and the development of 'new' wars, 1976­ 2000
Continuing importance of conventional warfare, especially in the first Gulf War. The Falklands War and developments in aircraft carrier warfare. Nuclear submarines and first Gulf War. Superpowers and guerrilla warfare, especially in Afghanistan. Further developments in nuclear warfare - 'Star Wars’ and the end of the nuclear arms race.
5 Changing methods of warfare at the beginning of the 21st century, 2000-2011
Impact of terrorism, especially 9/11. New wars and high-tech warfare, the importance of 'surgical' air strikes in the 21st century wars in the Middle East. The development of drone wars in Pakistan and unmanned land vehicles in Iraq and Afghanistan.
B7 The Middle East: conflict, crisis and change, 1917-2012
This unit comprises five key topics, each centred on crucial developments in the history of this period. The following themes run through the key topics:
• international involvement in Middle East conflicts
• the problem of disputed territorial claims
• military conflicts - the key wars
• political and diplomatic attempts to achieve lasting peace
• the role of terrorism.
These themes will be the focus of Paper 2, sub-question (c), which will normally draw on the content of two or more topics.

What students need to learn:

1 Build up of tension in Palestine, 1917-46
The Balfour Declaration. Jewish immigration. Clashes between Jews and Palestinians. The Peel Commission. Arab and Jewish terrorist aims and activities. King David Hotel (1946).

2 The creation of Israel, the war of1948-49 and the Suez Crisis of 1956
Britain hands over problem to UN. UN partition plan. First Arab-Israeli War. Reason for Israeli victory. Palestinian refugee problem and growth of terrorism. Law of Return. Nasser's motives for nationalisation of Suez Canal. Joint British, French and Israeli attack. UN action and attitude of superpowers. Results of crisis.

3 Tension and conflict, 1956-73

Nasser and Arab aims versus Israel. Israeli attack on Arab neighbours in 1967. Events of Six-Day War. Israeli gains. Reasons for Israeli success. Impact of war on Israel and on Arab states. The importance of Palestinian resistance, especially the role of Arafat and the PLO, Black September and the Munich Olympics, 1972. Impact of the Cold War on the Arab-Israeli conflict. The Arab attack on Israel on Yom Kippur (1973). Reasons for early Arab success and eventual Israel recovery. Effects of the war on the Arab-Israeli conflict.
4 Diplomacy, peace then wider war, 1973-83
Kissinger and Shuttle Diplomacy (1973-75). Reasons for terms and results of the Camp David Agreements. The roles of Sadat, Begin and Carter. Widening of the conflict into Lebanon (1982-83), including the role of the PLO.

5 The attempts to find a lasting peace, 1987­ 2012
The impact of the first Intifada. Attempts to achieve peace between Israel and the Palestinians, including the motives of Arafat, Rabin, Netanyahu, Hamas, Hezbollah and the USA. The terms and results of the Oslo Peace Accords of 1993. The assassination of Rabin and Netanyahu's opposition to Oslo. The second Intifada (2000). Attempts to re-start the talks: the 2003 Roadmap for Peace and reasons for its failure. The Gaza War (2008-09) and its effects.
B8 Diversity, rights and equality in Britain, 1914-2010
This unit comprises five key topics, each centred on crucial developments in the history of this period. The following themes run through the key topics:
• changing attitudes and opportunities: race, gender
• changing attitudes and opportunities: disability, class
• influences of immigration and diversity on British society
• the role of protest and pressure groups in changing attitudes and opportunities
• the role of government in changing attitudes and opportunities.
These themes will be the focus of Paper 2, sub-question (c), which will normally draw on the content of two or more topics.
Please note that some legislation in the content of the topic refers to England and Wales only.

What students need to learn:

1 The fight for recognition, 1914-1928
The nature of diversity, rights and equality in Britain in 1914, including attitudes to race, gender, disability and class, and pressures for change. The impact of the First World War on attitudes to, and opportunities for, women, ethnic minorities, the working classes and disabled people, including treatment for mental and physical disability. The significance of changes in voting rights and the Sex Disqualification (Removal) Act (1919), the Education Act (1918) and the Aliens Restriction (Amendment) Act (1919).

2 The impact of Depression and war, 1928-45
Race, gender, disability and class in Depression and war, including eugenics. The impact of unemployment and the Jarrow Crusade. Reasons for, and impact of, immigration and ethnic tensions, including the BUF. Changing experiences in the Second World War, including the introduction of national service, the treatment of aliens, the 'colour bar’ and the significance of the case of Learie Constantine and the Imperial Hotel. The significance of the Disabled Persons (Employment) Act (1944).

3 Consequences of war and the end of empire, 1944-62
The contribution and treatment of Empire and Commonwealth immigrants, including the Windrush, African and South Asian immigrants. Claudia Jones and the Caribbean Carnival. Barriers to change, including the significance of the Commonwealth Immigrants Act (1962). Reasons for changes in attitudes to, and opportunities for, women, sexual minorities and disabled people, including Sir Ludwig Guttmann and the Paralympic Games movement, and the Wolfenden Report (1957). The significance of Butler’s Education Act (1944) and the beginning of the NHS (1948).

4 Changes in civil rights, C1962-1986
The reasons for and extent of the social revolution in diversity, rights and equality - the impact of: feminism and the women's strike at Dagenham; campaigns for racial equality and the Bristol Bus Boycott; comprehensive education and university grants; the Warnock Report (1978); improved rights for disabled people and sexual minorities. Barriers to change, including Enoch Powell, the anti-immigration movement, and the Immigration Act (1971). The significance of legislation in removing barriers: the Race Relations Act (1965); the Sexual Offences Act (1967); Chronically Sick and Disabled Persons Act (1970); Castle's Equal Pay Act (1970); the Sex Discrimination Act (1975).

5 Changes in opportunity and culture, 1986-2010
The drive for equal rights and cultural diversity, including the impact of the National Council for Civil Liberties, the Stephen Lawrence case, third-wave feminism, the LGBT Foundation and the British Council of Organisations of Disabled People. The significance of diversity for the arts and culture in Britain. The significance of increased educational opportunities. Barriers to change, including religious intolerance, institutional racism, continuing sexism, Section 28 (1988), disability discrimination, continuing social and economic inequality. The significance of the Equality Act (2010).
Component/paper code: 4HI1/01 and 4HI1/02
Paper 1: Depth Studies
Paper codes 4HI/01.
50% of the total International GCSE.
Written examination: 1 hour 30 minutes, 60 marks
Availability: June.

Content summary:
Students must study at least two depth studies from the following [Block 1]:
1 The French Revolution, c1780-99
2 Development of a nation: unification of Italy, 1848-70
3 Germany: development of dictatorship, 1918-45
4 Colonial rule and the nationalist challenge in India, 1919-47
5 Dictatorship and conflict in the USSR, 1924-53
6 A world divided: superpower relations, 1943-72
7 A divided union: civil rights in the USA, 1945-74
8 South Africa: from union to the end of apartheid, 1948-94.

Assessment: Students are assessed through an examination based on their selected depth studies. Students answer two questions, one on each of the depth studies they have studied.

Paper 2: Investigation and Breadth Studies
Paper code 4HI1/02.
50% of the total International GCSE.
Written examination: 1 hour 30 minutes, 60 marks
Availability: June.

Content summary:
Students must study one historical investigation from the following [Block A]:
A1 The origins and course of the First World War, 1905-18
A2 Russia and the Soviet Union, 1905-24
A3 The USA, 1918-41
A4 The Vietnam Conflict, 1945-75
A5 East Germany, 1958-90.

Students must study one breadth study in change from the following [Block B]:
B1 America: from new nation to divided union, 1783-1877
B2 Changes in medicine, c1848-c1948
B3 Japan in transformation, 1853-1945
B4 China: conflict, crisis and change, 1900-89
B5 The changing role of international organisations: the league and the UN, 1919-c2011 B6 The changing nature of warfare and international conflict, 1919-2011
B7 The Middle East: conflict, crisis and change, 1917-2012
B8 Diversity, rights and equality in Britain, 1914-2010.

Students will:
  • gain knowledge and understanding of the key features and characteristics of historical periods
  • develop skills to explain, analyse and make judgements about historical events and periods studied, using second-order historical concepts
  • learn how to use a range of source material to comprehend, interpret and cross-reference sources
  • develop skills to analyse and evaluate historical interpretations in the context of historical events studied.

Assessment: Students are assessed through an examination based on their historical investigation
and breadth study in change. Students answer two questions, one question on their historical investigation and one question on their breadth study in change.

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